mining vs. in situ,mining vs. in situ provides an initial, much-needed comparison of the environmental impacts of oil sands mining and in situ extraction. it draws on the pembina institute's two oil sands report cards -- under-mining the environment: the oil sands report card and drilling deeper: the in situ oil sands.welcome | oil sands watch | pembina institute,first ever report card on deep oil sands reveals significant room for improvement some in-situ environmental impacts as serious as mining. drilling deeper: the in situ oil sands report card is the first comparative environmental assessment of in situ oil sands projects. scores among the nine canadian operating projects surveyed ranged from 25% to 60%, with five of nine projects scoring less.
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oil sand mining has a large impact on the environment. forests must be cleared for both open-pit and in situ mining. pit mines can grow to more than 80 meters depth, as massive trucks remove up to 720,000 tons of sand every day. as of september 2013, roughly 895 square kilometers (345 square miles) of land had been disturbed for oil sand mining.
introduction :introduction : o the oil sands geologythe oil sands geology o the resource and reserve: surface mining and in-situ o environmental issues associated with oil sands developmentsands development o oil sands impact on the canadian economy/products
shallow deposits can be extracted using open pit mining but most oil sand reserves are located too far underground and require unconventional technologies such as steam-assisted gravity drainage (sagd) and other in-situ techniques to extract and separate the oil.
an in-situ processing plant is generally much smaller and simpler than an oil sands mining facility. however, bitumen can only be extracted in-situ if the oil sands deposit is deep below the surface. most in-situ deposits lie at least 200 meters below grade.
there are only 2 paths to extracting bitumen from the oil sands: by injecting steam deep underground and pumping the oil to surface (thermal in-situ), or; by mining the ore and physically separating the bitumen from the sand in a processing plant. suncor energy has been mining the oil sands since the late 1960s.
in-situ extraction methods are used to recover bitumen that lies too deep beneath the surface for mining (greater than 75 metres underground). currently, 80% of oil sands reserves are accessible via in-situ techniques. steam assisted gravity drainage (sagd) is currently the most widely used in-situ
the oil sands are recovered by surface mining and in situ techniques; the latter process is similar to conventional production techniques. the energy sector is a major economic driver for canada. the oil sands alone currently contribute 112,000 jobs across canada, and over the next 25 years it is expected to contribute over 11 million person
the canada energy regulator (cer) expects in-situ oil sands production to grow almost 70% between 2018 and 2040, from 1.6 to 2.7 million barrels per day. the main reason for this growth is that in-situ plants are cheaper than oil sands mining plants because they are smaller and don’t need processing plants and tailings ponds and dams.
oil sands is a mixture of bitumen, sand, fine clays, silts and water. because it does not flow like conventional crude oil, it must be mined or heated underground before it can be processed. suncor produces bitumen in two ways, mining and in situ.
that means that 80% of the canadian oil sand reserves occupying 97% of the surface are recoverable using in-situ techniques not requiring more ground footprint than light crude oil production anywhere else in the world. open-pit-mining deposit production will require a classical mining process with heavy shovels, trucks and crushers.
the horizon oil sands include a surface oil sands mining and bitumen extraction plant, complemented by on-site bitumen upgrading with associated infrastructure to produce high quality sco. in late 2017, the phase 3 expansion was completed at horizon, the final step in the company's transition to a long life low decline asset base.
the oil sands mining tailings inventory is growing and current treatment technologies are costly or unable to recover water effectively and handle the high solids content of the waste. here we consider in-situ treatment of mature fine tailings (mft) where additives are injected directly into the tailings to consolidate the solids so that the
oil sands are a combination of sand, clay and water that contain a heavy crude oil variant called bitumen. 1 but, this complex hydrocarbon is almost solid at room temperature and does not flow without extensive processing. 2 subsequently, there are two ways to extract the bitumen: mining or in situ. 3 both are complex, energy-intensive and expensive processes. 3 as a result, oil sands
there are two processes that are used to recover oil sands bitumen—open pit mining and in-situ recovery. twenty percent of oil sands reserves are accessible using well-proven open pit mining processes. oil sands ore is mined and transported to a crushing facility and then on to the extraction plant. during the process, hot water is added to
in situ production is used to recover oil sands resources that are too deep to mine. currently, in situ accounts for for 53 per cent of oil sands production by volume; from a land surface perspective, about 80 per cent of canada’s bitumen deposits are too deep to mine, so these resources could be recovered through in situ processes.
in situ oil sands mining. oil sands deposits that are greater than 75 meters below the ground surface are usually extracted without removing the overlying rock and dirt. this is known as in situ oil sands mining. oil sands deposits are usually split into two types of deposits.
if the oil sand is too deep in the ground for open-cast mining, another method is used – the in-situ production, where two parallel shafts are drilled into the ground. under high pressure, steam is forced through one shaft, which dissolves the bitumen and pumps it upwards through the other shaft.
perhaps the most exciting aspect of in situ is its potential for improving the public’s perception of oil sands mining. compared to surface mining, in situ extraction uses a
in situ methods used in the oil sands in situ methods are used to recover bitumen that lies too deep beneath the surface for mining (about 80% of the oil sands in alberta). the success of in situ methods depends on the resolution of two major issues: 1) reducing the viscosity of bitumen so that it will flow, and 2) recovering the bitumen from deep within the earth (osdc 2008c).
to extract oil that is too deep for surface mining operations, in situ mining, or “in place” mining, is used. mining companies use steam and gravity to bring the sticky oil to the surface. this method is used where the oil sand layer is deeper than 75 meters (246 feet). two parallel l-shaped wells reach into the deep oil sand
another method of mining oil sands is in-situ, also called in-situ recovery (isr) or solution mining. it is mainly used to extract bitumen in oil sand that is buried too deep below the earth's
around 80 per cent of the oil from alberta’s oil sands is buried too deep to mine and can be recovered only by drilling wells. that’s where “in situ” recovery comes in. companies must apply and receive our approval before starting an in situ operation.. what is in situ recovery? in in situ recovery, wells are drilled to extract an extra-heavy type of oil called bitumen. some bitumen is
except for a fraction of the extra-heavy oil or bitumen which can be extracted by conventional oil well technology, oil sands must be produced by strip mining or the oil made to flow into wells using sophisticated in-situ techniques. these methods usually use more water and require larger amounts of energy than conventional oil extraction.
oil sands mining yields four to eight times the energy used to mine it, and in-situ oil sands extraction – which accounts for the majority of production – returns only 3.2 to 5.4 times the energy investment. those figures don’t include transportation or final refining.